What is Butanediol made of?
1,4-Butanediol, colloquially known as BD or BDO, is a primary alcohol, and an organic compound, with the formula HOCH2CH2CH2CH2OH. It is a colorless viscous liquid. It is one of four stable isomers of butanediol.
14BG (1,4-Butanediol) is a straight-chain glycol with hydroxyl groups on both ends. It is used as a raw material for high-performance polyester and polyurethane resins as well as for industrial chemicals like tetrahydrofuran and gamma-butyrolactone.BDO is a major commodity chemical used to annually make over 2.5 million tons of valuable polymers such as polyesters, plastics, and spandex fibers. It is currently produced from petroleum-based substrates such as acetylene, butane, propylene, and butadiene.
What is butanediol used for?
1,4-Butanediol is used industrially to make floor strippers, paint thinner, and other solvent products. It is sometimes used in supplements as a substitute for illegal substances such as gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB).
What is the butanediol pathway?
The 2,3 butanediol fermentation pathway will ferment glucose and produce a 2,3 butanediol end product instead of organic acids. In order to test this pathway, an aliquot of the MR/VP culture is removed and a-naphthol and KOH are added.
Is butanediol soluble in water?
It is a colourless viscous liquid. It is one of four stable isomers of butanediol.
What is the boiling point of 1/4 butanediol?
What’s the difference between GHB and BDO?
Once ingested, GBL and BDO metabolize into GHB and have similar clinical effects. But unlike GHB, both chemicals have widespread use in industrial manufacturing, which prevents them from being regulated as controlled substances.
Is BDO a controlled substance?
BD is not a controlled or regulated substance under the Controlled Substances Act.
Does BDO freeze?
In addition, BDO freezes at 20°C (68°F). Therefore, it’s important to maintain BDO above the freezing point to avoid crystallization in the equipment lines and phase separation in a B-Side formulation.
Why does BDO crash?
When multiple applications are running in the background simultaneously, your Black Desert Online may crash due to limited resources or software conflicts. It’s a good idea to shut down other unneeded programs before you start playing.
14BD (1,4-Butanediol (BDO), 1,4-Butylene glycol (BG), 1,4-Dihydroxy butane, Tetramethylene glycol (TMG)) is a raw material for polyester and polyurethane resins (chain extender, hard segment) that show excellent characteristics.
These products find a wide range of applications including everyday consumer products such as clothing and shoe soles, consumer durables such as electrical appliances and cars, industrial materials such as machine parts, as well as medical products. It is anticipated that the use of these polymers will continue to expand.
PBT (Polybutylene terephthalate) Resin Raw Material
Because 14BG diol (dibasic alcohol) is used as raw material, PBT is a great engineering plastic with low water-absorbance and an excellent balance of mechanical and electrical properties. Applications are expanding beyond the original electrical/electronic parts and automotive parts markets.
Polyurethane Resin Raw Material
By using 14BG diol for the chain extender, urethane elastomers can be made with excellent mechanical properties and high resistance to heat, oil, and impact.
Other Polyester Raw Materials
14BG is widely used to make various polyester resins and plasticizers.
Raw Material for Industrial Chemicals (Tetrahydrofuran, Gamma-Butyrolactone)
Tetrahydrofuran and gamma-butyrolactone are produced industrially by dehydration or dehydrogenation of 14BG.
Storage and Handling
14BG is hygroscopic and will be degraded by oxygen, so the storage container should be sealed with dry nitrogen. It is recommended that storage is at 25-40℃. Below 20℃ 14BG will be solid but can be melted by careful heating. To melt solidified 14BG in drums, hold overnight at 50-70℃. 14BG is classified under the Japanese Fire Services Act as a hazardous material, Class 4, Petroleums No.3, water-soluble, Hazardous Rank III. Volatility is low, and 14BG is unlikely to catch fire by itself at room temperature. However, in case it is burning, dry chemical, foam (alcohol resistant), or large amounts of water are effective. 14BG has relatively low toxicity and is a relatively safe chemical. When handling, however, protective equipment such as protective gloves and goggles should be worn.
Toxicity and harm potential
1,4-Butanediol is not active in its own right; its mechanism of action stems from its identity as a prodrug of GHB, meaning that it is rapidly converted into GHB in the body.
GHB is considered to be a safe and non-toxic substance when used responsibly or medically. The LD50 is above the active dosage, and there is no danger of acute toxicity when this compound is taken at appropriate dosages. However, it can be dangerous when used as a recreational drug or abused. There have been many negative reports from recreational users who have overdosed, combined GHB with alcohol or other drugs, or accidentally dosed themselves unexpectedly.
One publication has investigated 226 deaths attributed to GHB. Seventy-one deaths (34%) were caused by GHB alone while the other deaths were from respiratory depression caused by interaction with alcohol or other drugs.
To avoid a possible overdose of GHB/1,4-Butanediol, it is important to start with a low dose and work your way up slowly by increasing the dosage in small increments as the exact toxic dosage is unknown.
Accidental ingestions of 1,4-Butanediol have also occurred due to inadequate storage methods. If 1,4-Butanediol is put into a clear liquid, glass, or bottle, it can be easily mistaken for water. It is recommended to clearly label your 1,4-Butanediol in writing and dye the liquid with blue food colouring so it no longer resembles a drinkable beverage. It is also recommended to store your 1,4-Butanediol in a container that no one would drink out of.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
In multiple studies, GHB has been found to impair spatial memory, working memory, learning and memory in rats with chronic administration. These effects are associated with decreased NMDA receptor expression in the cerebral cortex and possibly other areas as well.
One study found that repeated administration of GHB to rats for 15 days drastically reduced the number of neurons and non-neuronal cells within the hippocampus and in the prefrontal cortex. With doses of 10 mg/kg of GHB, they were decreased by 61% in the hippocampus region and 32% in the prefrontal cortex, and with 100 mg/kg, they were decreased by 38% and 9%, respectively. This paper demonstrates contradicting effects on neuronal loss, with lower doses (10 mg/kg) producing the most neurotoxicity, and higher doses (100 mg/kg) producing less.