What is 1,4-Butanediol made of?
1,4-Butanediol CAS 110-63-4 known as BD or BDO, is a primary alcohol, and an organic compound, with the formula HOCH2CH2CH2CH2OH. It is a colorless, viscous liquid. It is one of four stable isomers of butanediol.1,4-Butanediol
Common Names:1,4-Butanediol,1,4-Butylene Glycol,1,4-Dihydroxybutane,Tetramethylene Glycol.
14BG (1,4-Butanediol) is a straight-chain glycol with hydroxyl groups on both ends. It is a raw material for high-performance polyester and polyurethane resins, as well as industrial chemicals such as tetrahydrofuran and gamma-butyrolactone. BDO is a major commodity chemical used to produce more than 2.5 million tons of valuable polymers such as polyester, plastic and spandex fibers. It is currently produced from petroleum-based feedstocks such as acetylene, butane, propylene and butadiene.
What is butanediol used for?
1,4-Butanediol used to make floor strippers, paint thinner, and other solvent products. It is sometimes used in supplements as a substitute for illegal substances such as gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB).
What is the butanediol pathway?
The 2,3 butanediol fermentation pathway will ferment glucose and produce a 2,3 butanediol end product instead of organic acids.To test this approach, remove an aliquot of the MR/VP culture and add α-naphthol and KOH.
Is butanediol soluble in water?
It is a colourless viscous liquid. It is one of four stable isomers of butanediol.
What is the boiling point of 1/4 butanediol?
What’s the difference between GHB and BDO?
Once ingested, GBL and BDO metabolize into GHB and have similar clinical effects. But unlike GHB, both chemicals have widespread use in industrial manufacturing, which prevents them from being regulated as controlled substances.
Is BDO a controlled substance?
BD is not a controlled or regulated substance under the Controlled Substances Act.
Does BDO freeze?
Besides, BDO freezes at 20°C (68°F). Thus, it’s important to maintain BDO above the freezing point to avoid crystallization in the equipment lines and phase separation in a B-Side formulation.
14BD (1,4-Butanediol (BDO), 1,4-Butylene glycol (BG), 1,4-Dihydroxy butane, Tetramethylene glycol (TMG)) is a raw material for polyester and polyurethane resins (chain extender, hard segment) that show excellent characteristics.
These products find a wide range of applications, including everyday consumer products such as clothing and shoe soles, consumer durables such as electrical appliances and cars, industrial materials such as machine parts, as well as medical products. And it will continue to expand.
PBT (Polybutylene terephthalate) Resin Raw Material
Because 14BG diol (dibasic alcohol) used as raw material, PBT is a great engineering plastic with low water-absorbance and an excellent balance of mechanical and electrical properties. Applications are expanding beyond the original electrical/electronic parts and automotive parts markets.
Polyurethane Resin Raw Material
By using 14BG diol for the chain extender, urethane elastomers can made with excellent mechanical properties and high resistance to heat, oil, and impact.
Other Polyester Raw Materials
14BG is widely used to make various polyester resins and plasticizers.
Raw Material for Industrial Chemicals (Tetrahydrofuran, Gamma-Butyrolactone).
Tetrahydrofuran and gamma-butyrolactone are produced industrially by dehydration or dehydrogenation of 14BG.
Storage and Handling
14BG is hygroscopic and can be degraded by oxygen, please seal it in a dry nitrogen container. The recommended storage temperature is 25-40°C. 14BG is solid below 20°C and will melt when heated. Melt the solidified 14BG in a barrel and keep it overnight at 50-70°C.
14BG is classified as a hazardous substance under the Japanese Fire Protection Law, Class 4, Petroleum No. 3, Water Soluble, Hazard Class III. Low volatility, 14BG is not flammable at room temperature. In case of burns, dry powder, foam (anti-alcohol) or copious amounts of water are all effective. 14BG has low toxicity and is a safe chemical. When handling, wear protective equipment such as protective gloves and goggles.
Toxicity and harm potential
1,4-Butanediol is not active in its own right, its mechanism of action stems from its identity as a prodrug of GHB, meaning that it is rapidly converted into GHB in the body.
GHB is a safe and non-toxic substance when used. The LD50 is higher than the active dose, and the compound will not pose the risk of acute toxicity when administered at an appropriate dose. However, it can be dangerous when used as a recreational drug or when abused. There have been many negative reports from recreational users who overdose, mixed GHB with alcohol or other drugs, or self-medicated.
One publication investigated 226 GHB deaths. GHB alone was responsible for 71 deaths (34%), while the other deaths were due to respiratory depression due to interactions with alcohol or other drugs.
How to avoid？
To avoid a overdose of GHB/1,4-Butanediol, it is important to start with a low dose and work your way up slowly by increasing the dosage in small increments as the exact toxic dosage is unknown.
Accidental ingestion of 1,4-butanediol has also occurred due to improper storage methods. 1,4-Butanediol can be mistaken for water if placed in a clear liquid, glass or bottle. Please label your 1,4-Butanediol and color the liquid with blue food coloring so that it no longer looks like a drinkable beverage. Or store 1,4-butanediol in a container that no one will drink from.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
Many studies have found that long-term use of GHB impairs spatial memory, working memory, learning, and memory in rats. This is because it affects the reduced expression of NMDA receptors in the cortex and other areas of the brain.
One study found that repeated administration of GHB to rats for 15 days resulted in a large reduction in the number of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. When the GHB dose was 10 mg/kg, GHB decreased by 61% in the hippocampus and 32% in the prefrontal cortex; when the GHB dose was 100 mg/kg, they decreased by 38% and 9%, .
The lower dose (10 mg/kg) produced the most neurotoxicity, while the higher dose (100 mg/kg) produced less neurotoxicity.