8 Things You Need To Know about 1,4-Butanediol(BDO)

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1. What is 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) CAS 110-63-4 ?

1,4-Butanediol (BDO) is a non-corrosive, colorless, high boiling liquid with a low order of toxicity.

1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is completely soluble in water, most alcohols, esters, ketones, glycol ethers and acetates, but may be immiscible or partially miscible in common aliphatic and aromatic/chlorinated hydrocarbons.

1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is produced by Lyondell Chemical Company in a proprietary, multi-step reaction from propylene oxide.

1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is a versatile chemical intermediate because of its terminal, primary hydroxyl groups and its hydrophobic and chemical resistant nature. Polymers produced upon reaction with diacids or diisocyanates are the basis for many commercial polyurethane and polyester applications


2. How does 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) work?

1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is converted to gamma hydroxybu

tyrate (GHB) in the body. GHB slows down the brain, which can cause loss of consciousness along with dangerous slowing of breathing and other vital functions. 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) also stimulates growth hormone secretion.



Neurotoxicity

In multiple studies, GHB has been found to impair spatial memory, working memory, learning and memory in rats with chronic administration. These effects are associated with decreased NMDA receptor expression in the cerebral cortex and possibly other areas as well.

One study found that repeated administration of GHB to rats for 15 days drastically reduced the number of neurons and non-neuronal cells within the hippocampus and in the prefrontal cortex. With doses of 10 mg/kg of GHB, they were decreased by 61% in the hippocampus region and 32% in the prefrontal cortex, and with 100 mg/kg, they were decreased by 38% and 9%, respectively. This paper demonstrates contradicting effects on neuronal loss, with lower doses (10 mg/kg) producing the most neurotoxicity, and higher doses (100 mg/kg) producing less.


Tolerance and addiction potential

1,4-Butanediol(BDO)/GHB is moderately physically and psychologically addictive. The frequent use of GHB/1,4-Butanediol can cause withdrawal symptoms similar to those caused by other depressants such as alcohol and benzodiazepines.

if abruptly discontinued. These symptoms seem to depend on the dosage and the length of time the drug was used for. Light to moderate users often experience anxiety, insomnia, sleep-related problems, and tremors whereas heavy use can cause severe withdrawal symptoms like delirium, psychosis, and hallucinations

Although there have been reported fatalities due to 1,4-Butanediol(BDO)/GHB withdrawal, reports are inconclusive and further research is needed

Tolerance will develop to the sedative-hypnotic effects within several weeks of continuous use. After cessation, the tolerance returns to baseline in 7 - 14 days. Withdrawal symptoms or rebound symptoms may occur after ceasing usage abruptly following a few weeks or longer of steady dosing, and may necessitate a gradual dose reduction.


3. What's 1,4-Butanediol used for?

As an important organic and fine chemical raw material, 1,4-Butanediol used for the fields of medicine, chemical industry, textile, papermaking, automobile and daily chemical industry. 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) application as below


Thermoplastic Polyesters

1,4-Butanediol(BDO) used to manufacture polybutylene terephthalate (PBT).

PBT s high strength, excellent thermal stability and good durability lead to its many uses in the automotive, electrical and appliance industries. PBT is also compatible with several other thermoplastics which enables a compounder to tailor a polymer alloy to an end user s specifications.

1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is a key component of thermoplastic copolyester elastomers. These elastomers rely upon  1,4-Butanediol(BDO) to provide crystallinity which in turn provides elasticity and resilience to these terephthalate-based polyesters.


Polyesters

In polyurethane applications,  1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is primarily used as a component of polyesters or as a chain extender. For example, polyesters such as poly (butylene adipate) diols are formulated into urethane elastomers with excellent oil, chemical and UV resistance. In addition, these materials have good mechanical properties over a broad temperature range, as well as good flex and abrasion resistance.

As a chain extender with MDI systems,  1,4-Butanediol(BDO) provides a good balance between hardness and low temperature flexibility. On comparison to other diols,  1,4-Butanediol(BDO) combines the best attributes of hydroxyl reactivity, linearity and overall system compatibility to build in the proper crystallinity required in the polyurethane hard segment. Also, the  1,4-Butanediol(BDO)/MDI systems provide a lower exposure hazard than MOCA/TDI systems.

1,4-Butanediol(BDO) used as a chain extender for thermoplastic urethane elastomers.  1,4-Butanediol(BDO) yields crystalline urethane domains which readily melt and flow at elevated temperatures but phase separate at ambient temperatures in order to yield tough elastomeric networks.

Cast urethane elastomers continue to be a major end use of 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) because of overall consistency and reliability.

Current applications of 1,4-Butanediol(BDO)-based urethane elastomers include automotive front and rear end fascia, bumpers, fenders and spoilers. Non-automotive applications include footwear, electrical enclosures, recreation equipment, appliances and furniture.

Urethane RIM elastomers using 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) allow design freedom and parts consolidation with large, complex shapes.


Polyester Plasticizers

1,4-Butanediol(BDO)-based polyester plasticizers impart superior compatibility with vinyl polymers while providing non-migrating characteristics. In addition, polyesters based upon  1,4-Butanediol(BDO) have excellent oxidation resistance and good low temperature flexibility.


Copolyester Hot Melt and Solvent borne Adhesives

1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is a key component of copolyesters of isophthalic acid and terephthalic acid used in hot melt adhesive applications. 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) yields polyesters with excellent adhesives and cohesive strength.


Derivatives

1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is the key raw material of several industrially important derivataives, 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is used industrially as a solvent and in the manufacture of some types of plastics, elastic fibers and polyurethanes. particularly tetrahydrofuran, g-butyrolactone (GBL), and N-methyl pyrrolidone.  


4. 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) benefits


Moisturizing Skin effect

Butylene glycol is a colorless liquid that can penetrate the molecular structure of water and has wipeable moisturizing and water-replenishing properties. It has excellent nutritional hydration and safety factors, so it can be used as a raw material for skin care products


Anti-Aging effect

As a polyether polyol substance, butylene glycol can not only be antibacterial, moisturizing and moisturizing, but also can be mixed into skin care products to show the actual effect of moisturizing, moisturizing and anti-aging for the skin.

Not only can it maintain the thin water content of the stratum corneum of the skin, but it can also prevent the bone glue from producing metal oxides. It often has a certain practical effect on reducing the hard bottom of the skin and resisting the signs of aging. Compared with many skin care products with some preservatives, butylene glycol is gentle and non-irritating, and it is safer to use on the skin.


5.What is 1,4-Butanediol(BDO)side effects

1,4-butanediol(BDO) is only safe in small amounts. Adverse effects in higher doses include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, sedation, vertigo, and potentially death if ingested in large amounts. Anxiolytic effects are diminished and side effects increased when used in combination with alcohol.


Depressants

(1,4-Butanediol, 2M2B, alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, GHB/GBL, methaqualone, opioids)This combination potentiates the muscle relaxation, amnesia, sedation, and respiratory depression caused by one another. At higher doses, it can lead to a sudden, unexpected loss of consciousness along with a dangerous amount of depressed respiration. There is also an increased risk of suffocating on one's vomit while unconscious. If nausea or vomiting occurs before a loss of consciousness, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.


Stimulants

BDO can be dangerous to combine depressants with stimulants due to the risk of accidental excessive intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effect of depressants, which is the main factor most people use to gauge their level of intoxication. Once the stimulant effects wear off, the effects of the depressant will significantly increase, leading to intensified disinhibition, motor control loss, and dangerous black-out states. This combination can also potentially result in severe dehydration if one's fluid intake is not closely monitored. If choosing to combine these substances, one should strictly limit themselves to a pre-set schedule of dosing only a certain amount per hour until a maximum threshold has been reached.


Dissociatives

This combination can unpredictably potentiate the amnesia, sedation, motor control loss and delusions that can be caused by each other. It may also result in a sudden loss of consciousness accompanied by a dangerous degree of respiratory depression. If nausea or vomiting occurs before consciousness is lost, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.


6. 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) Storage and Handling

In the presence of strong acids, 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is dehydrated to tetrahydrofuran. Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Since 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) solidifies at temperatures below 19degree, appropriate storage temperatures are required; however, reliquidation does not alter its properties. 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) can be shipped and stored in mild steel; however, coated tanks or stainless steel will prolong.

7.1,4-Butanediol(BDO) Legal status


United States

While 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is not currently scheduled federally in the United States, a number of states have classified it as a controlled substance. Additionally, individuals have been prosecuted for this substance under the Federal Analogue Act as being substantially similar to GHB.[23] A federal district court in Chicago ruled that 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) could not be considered an analogue of GHB under federal law, and the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals upheld that ruling.


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) was scheduled in December 2009 (along with another GHB precursor, gamma-butyrolactone) as a Class C controlled substance.


Germany

1,4-butanediol(BDO) is not a controlled substance under the BtMG (Narcotics Act) or the NpSG (New Psychoactive Substances Act). It is legal, as long as it is not sold for human consumption, according to 2 AMG.


Canada

1,4-butanediol(BDO) controlled as a Schedule VI precursor in Canada.


Switzerland

1,4-butanediol(BDO) is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis E.


8. Where to buy 1,4-Butanediol(BDO)

1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is available online from different 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) manufacturers. Most users of  1,4-Butanediol(BDO) buy from different websites, some for retail or wholesale purposes.

Verify the legitimacy of every 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) manufacturer using outlined state laws before purchase.

We are one of the best  1,4-Butanediol(BDO) Suppliers in China. if you interested. you also can browse our website http://www.whwingroup.com/ to see more details.

References

1. Ricardo F. Checoni, Artur Z. Francesconi. Experimental Study of the Excess Molar Enthalpy of Ternary Mixtures Containing Water + (1,2-Propanediol, or 1,3-Propanediol, or 1,2-Butanediol, or 1,3-Butanediol, or 1,4-Butanediol(BDO), or 2,3-Butanediol)+Electrolytes at 298.15 K and Atmospheric Pressure. Journal of Solution Chemistry. 2009-08, 38 (8) 1055C1070 [2019-12-16]. ISSN 0095-9782. doi:10.1007/s10953-009-9426-z


2. Hekun Lv, Yimin Guo, Xueqin An, Weiguo Shen. Liquid−Liquid Coexistence Curves of { x 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate + (1 − x ) 1,3-Propanediol} and { x 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate + (1 − x )1,4-Butanediol(BDO)}. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data. 2010-07-08,55(7):2482 2488 [2019-12-16]. ISSN 0021-9568. doi:10.1021/je900864n


3. Ethers, by Lawrence Karas and W. J. Piel. KirkOthmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2004.


4. Zhao, J. F. Hartwig "Acceptorless, Neat, Ruthenium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Cyclization of Diols to Lactones" Organometallics 2005, volume 24, 2441-2446.


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